Blinding out the cold

Do your window covers block out the cold? It turns out that horizontal blinds work pretty well, especially if you tilt the rails downwards, so that they open towards the floor, a bit like the feathers on a bird.

I used to think that it would be best to have the opening upwards, as I thought it would reduce the coldness falling from the window into the room. But it turns out that the bigger issue is to prevent warm air from inside the room from falling onto the window in the first place. Angling the rails down stops cold air circulating – a bit like feathers on a bird.

I took some thermal images to test this theory. I chose a cold night of about minus four degrees Celsius outside, after our  heater had been on for several hours, so it was about 20 degrees inside.

The following pictures show a series of close-ups in the same mid-section of the blinds. The thermal scale is the same in each picture, so you can compare the impact of tilting the rails. In these photos, blue and green are cold, and white is warmer than red.

The rails are tilted down in the first picture, which is the right way to do it. Here are some close ups. When the rails are angled down, there is a lot of white, quite a bit of red, and no green or blue. Rails tilted down stops cold air from circulating out from the centre of the blind.

In the next pictures, the rails are tilted upwards. There is less white and more red here. The blinds are still stopping a lot of the warm air leaking out the house, but not as much as when the rails are pointed down.

And in case you are thinking that maybe the blinds don’t do much at all, have a look at them when they are open. The heat loss is huge, with glaring great blue-cold glass leaking the warmth out right away. I could really feel it too, when I opened the blinds and the room felt colder right away.

It’s also worth thinking about the whole blinds. The photo from further back shows that there is still some coldness down at the bottom. These blinds would work even better if I could seal off the base, but I haven’t worked out how to do that yet.

Any suggestions?

Warm kids in an icy tent

Last night four young people in my care braved minus 4°C temperatures to camp out in the back paddock. They slept in a 17 year old large two-season dome tent with netting rather than nylon walls, plus a fly.

Despite their good mattresses, many sleeping bags and hats, I fretted during the night. Would I wake to find four icicles instead of four kids?

Curious, and paranoid, I wandered down to check on their status, through the morning frost when temperatures were just hitting zero. All had slept and woken safely and complained only of cold feet.

The thermal imaging camera tells the tale of the icy tent and warm kids.

Here’s the tent, before I have opened it up. The thermal image shows that some heat is escaping through the zipper and seams. Parts of the fly are warming up in the sun. then there are super warm patches where cold toes push against the end of the tent. All in all, the temperature in the tent looks much warmer than outside.

closed tent close - photo

closed tent close - thermal

Once we open the tent, heat starts pouring out. Now we can see the full story of the cold feet. I ask the one on the left if it seems cold up near his head and he confirms it. That’s the dark blue patch on the left, inside the tent.

open tent close, photo

open tent close - thermal

I ask the two on the right and their heads pop up – still with their hats on, and there it is. Their faces are positively warm compared with the top of the doonas and sleeping bags which have done their job well. Very little heat is coming off the kids bodies.So are the kids warm?

Two faces in sleeping bag, hats on, photo

Two faces in sleeping bag, hats on, thermal

So, we wake to four safe, mostly warm people. Next time we’ll add another mat and doona to their feet.


Home chicken butchering for part-timers, solos and softies

Chicken butchering is a conflicting experience for me. I am gratified that I can kill a chicken when needed. I’m satisfied when I turn it into food. I am also distressed that I can take another life. My belief in sustainable food production wins out, and I try hard to turn chickens I can no longer keep into food for the table.

Until recently, it was touch-and-go whether my dead chooks made it to the table, or were buried as compost. So here are my secrets for tipping the balance in favour of the table.

First – why do I kill chickens? I don’t just kill them after they stop laying eggs, but instead allow them to retire for as long as they stay healthy and happy. But eventually they get , and it is cruel to keep them alive. I bury my old, sick ones in the ground. But I also keep a rooster, and breed chicks each season. Somehow I always end up with more young roosters than new hens.

If you’ve ever tried to keep a whole lot of roosters together with hens you’ll know it doesn’t work. They’ll fight each other constantly, drawing blood and causing distress, and they fight over then hens and make the whole flock miserable. So keeping roosters, and raising chicks inevitably means killing young, healthy birds, which are brilliant part of sustainable food production.

It all adds up to killing about 2-5 roosters in a batch, once a year, and putting down another couple of birds at odd times. Today I butchered four young roosters, and was only mildly traumatised.

In summary, I use “the broomstick method” to kill, and then skin, rather than plucking. There’s virtually no blood, no feathers and no noise. These features make it possible for me to get the job done well by myself, without a lot of skill, experience, preparation or time.

Get prepared

First, recognise that you need to be quite determined and focused to kill a living animal, and turn it into food. Some of the tasks need strength, others need great care and some feel unnatural. Prepare yourself mentally before you begin.

Starving a bird for at least 14 hours makes gutting easy. If you can’t easily separate the target birds, remove the food from the whole flock the night before. In the morning, the others can wait for breakfast, and knowing your other chickens are hungry will help keep you on track too. The added bonus is the roosters may be cross enough to come up and peck at you, making them easy to catch.

Work out what you are going to do with the leftover feathers, guts and other leftover bits. I bury mine in the garden, so I dig a hole first.

Here’s my set-up:

Outside and out of sight of the hen-house, target birds 

  • Make up a processing area including a sharp knife with a pointed end, a cutting board and large, clean kitchen bowl big enough to hold finished chicken. An optional extra is a pair of bone-scissors.
  • Hang a hook above your head height, within easy reach of the cutting board, and with a large bucket underneath, and twine to tie the bird up by its feet. I use a piece from a hay bale.
  • A broom, rake or other long, wooden-handled implement somewhere nearby.
  • A hose with a strong jet nearby to clean the bird before taking it inside.

Inside, in the kitchen

  • Another chopping board and knife, near the sink.
  • Adjacent to that, glad wrap and a clean bag for each bird.

 Honour the bird

An important step for me personally is to honour the bird and its short life and sacrifice. I hold each bird for a while, talking with it about its life, and what I’ve loved about it. I tell it I’m sorry that I can’t keep it alive, explain why and tell it to look at the beautiful world around. This process gets me centred and ready, and maybe even helps the bird too, as it always relaxes in my arms. We are both very relaxed for the next bit, and I keep talking until I have worked up a clear, calm determination to carry through with the whole job.

Use the Broomstick Method

I learned the broomstick method from a Backyard Poultry fact sheet on How to kill a chicken for food. It’s mentioned in just one short paragraph copied here, with some extra tips of my own below:

Lay the chicken on the ground, holding the tail and legs together, and gently rest a broomstick across the neck behind the head. This doesn’t hurt the chicken until the last second, when you place your feet on the broomstick to either side of the head and pull the chicken’s body swiftly upward. Done properly, this remains a quick and clean method, as the blood drains into the gap between vertebrae and remains inside the skin until the head is cut off.”

My extra tips are:

  • The correct hold is high up on the feathered part of the legs so that you can also pull the tail down and hold it together with both legs in your dominant hand. This hold confuses the chicken, and it will stop thinking about you, and stretch its body out, while staying pretty still and making it easy to get into position.
  • Lie the bird’s chin on the ground, then put the broomstick across the back of its head, right up against its skull. Stand with both feet on the broomstick, one on either side of its head.
  • Minimise distress to the bird by working quickly with the right force, speed and angle.
    • Force and speed depend on the bird’s condition. Don’t be too quick or strong with an old, sick bird or you could accidentally pull its head right off. Go quite hard and fast for a strong, young rooster.
    • For the right angle, use both hands and start down between your legs so that the bird is stretched out, then flick forward as if you were ten-pin bowling or throwing a softball. At the end of the movement the bird’s body is across the top of its head at a hard angle, and you’ll hear a small noise, which is not as clean as a pop or a snap, but is still a definite bone-and-gristle noise.
  • You can tell you have succeeded because the bird will immediately flap as a reflex action. Usually it will flap about 10-20 times very hard, then hang still, and then flap again a few more times in shorter bursts. Its legs will move a bit at this time too, but its head will hang down loosely.

 There are three parts to a bird…..

Think of the bird as having in inside, an outside and the meat and bones in the middle.

The outside includes the feathers, head, tail, feet etc. You need to remove all of these outside bits before you can eat your chicken.

The inside is the guts and organs, all in a big, strong cavity inside the ribs and between the back and breastbone. There are two tubes at the top, and one coming out of the bottom, and they are all connected together. The goal of ‘gutting’ is to remove all of the inside bits in one big piece, without puncturing the digestive tract, which is a continuous tube from mouth-to-cloaca. The cloaca by the way, is the ‘pooh hole’, and also the ‘egg hole’ (or rooster equivalent), which is the only opening in the back end of a bird. If you’ve starved your bird overnight, there’ll be enough room on the inside for all of those parts, and your hand as well, which is what you’ll use to pull the insides out.

Once you have removed the outside and the inside bits, you are left with the foody part in the middle. The skin is in between the feathery outside, and the good bits in the middle and can be treated either as part of either. Pluck the chicken if you want to eat the skin, or skin it as an easier alternative.


Learning to skin a bird was the turning point for me between reliably turning chickens into food, or usually burying them. Plucking takes more time, makes more mess, and involves some complicated heating and timing. You have to ‘scald’ the bird for a few minutes in hot-but-not-boiling water, so you need a large, clean bucket and new water for each kill (unless you are doing it production style with many on the go at once). Wing feathers and some others are really hard, and I always managed to tear some of it. Do this when you are processing lots of chooks with a bunch of friends, but consider skinning if you are working solo on a small scale.

There are lots of skinning methods explained on-line, but the one I explain here works well, because it minimizes the number of times you move the bird around, and gets the whole process going quickly. Know that the skin is stuck on pretty well, so you need to be firm and determined to pull it off.

While the bird is still flapping, tie its feet tightly together with twine, then hang it upside-down on the hook. It will stay like this until the final steps.

As soon as the bird is hanging still, take hold of its tail, and locate the cloaca. Slice upwards into the tail, without cutting all the way through, then cut towards one side slicing around the cloaca. Keep cutting until you can see open space between the skin and the very end of the digestive tract – inside the bird. What you have to do is to cut all around the outside of the cloaca, without puncturing that tract. The tail and the cloaca will stay together as the end of the ‘inside’ part. Keeping them together makes it easy to keep track of the cloaca so that you don’t puncture it.

While working around the cloaca, start preparing to skin the bird. Think of the skin as a tight-fitting outfit on toddler who wants to keep it on. You’ll be pulling firmly, while keeping in mind the basic shapes (arms and legs) that you are working around, and how each one of them bends. Make a few definite cuts through the skin.

  • forwards from the cloaca, between the legs and towards the breastbone,
  • All the way down the front of the bird from breastbone towards the shoulders,
  • Up the back of the legs towards the feet, pulling the skin off from the muscle as you go. Also cut around each knee, just below where the feathers meet the scales.

Start skinning from top of the leg-feathers, one leg at a time. You may need to do some more careful cutting between the legs once you have stripped them. Skin comes off the belly easily, and is harder on the back, but a firm pull, while loosening with fingers or knife will do it.

For the wings, I recommend cutting them off at the first joint, which means they’ll be shorter than a shop-bought bird. You can try to skin the whole wing, but the feathers are stuck on very tight there. To remove the wing-tips, cut the wing membrane in towards the first-joint elbow, then firmly bend the wing backwards, dislocating the joint. Then you can easily cut through between the ball joints, and then pull the skin off around this bit of wing.

After you’ve skinned the wings, you’ll quickly have the whole skin hanging down over the head. Now you can see that while you’ve been working, nearly all of the blood has settled around the skull, so the meat is nice and white. Don’t worry about getting the skin off the head, but instead cut the neck off up close to the shoulders (this is where the bone-scissors are useful).


Take the bird off the hook now, and remove the twine. Also cut off the feet by bending the knee-joint backwards at the end of the ‘drumstick’, and then easily cutting through the tendon.

The trick to gutting is to loosen everything, make as much space as you can, and not puncture the digestive tract. Start by cutting carefully around the windpipe and digestive tract at the neck. Then use your fingers to reach in and loosen the inside from the outside, by running your fingers along between the organs and the ribcage, all around the inside of the shoulders.

Then ensure you have a good hole around the back of the bird up towards the breast. This needs to be large enough to get your whole hand right inside. The insides will already be detached from the breast, but all of the organs will be sticking to the back. As with the neck, just run your hand between the inside and the outside, breaking the connective tissue. While you are doing this, hold the bird above the bucket, gradually easing out the whole inside part. The wing-tips, skin, feathers, head and insides are all in the bucket now, a chicken that looks nearly like a bought one in your hand, and there’s barely a drop of blood spilled anywhere.

Cleaning and storing

Use the hose to clean off any feathers, and the inside of the carcass. Put it in the bowl, and take inside for a final clean-up, and packaging in a plastic bag. Pull the legs and wings in tight, so that it is compact in the fridge. The best option is a vacuum sealer, but I don’t have one, so I tightly glad-wrap all around then put it in a clean plastic bag.

Rigor mortis is the condition where a recently-dead animal becomes stiff for about 48 hours, starting about 20 minutes after death for a chicken. If you cook or freeze a bird in this state it will be very tough. You need to leave it in the fridge for 48 hours so that it becomes tender again, and then either freeze or cook.

Want to see pictures?

I can’t easily work out the ethics of showing this process in pictures. Post a comment if you want photos added to see how it is done.

Why LED lamps are best

There’s a lighting revolution underway. You can no longer buy the old incandescent lamps that are still the symbol of a good idea . Instead there’s a bewildering array of alternatives. So which ones should you buy?

Here are the lamps I saw for sale recently at the supermarket. So many options, each with most of the fittings you could want – including the standard screw and bayonet fittings that are still standard in most older houses like mine.

LEDs and other lamps for sale - whole rack

They have a wide range of wattages, lumens, hours and price tags. What does is all mean?

close up of lamps for sale

  • Watts are the amount of power used. The higher the watts, the great the energy being used.
  • Lumens are the amount of light emitted. The higher the lumens, the brighter the lamp. In some places, like kitchens, we want lots of light. We may want less from our bedside lamp.
  • Hours of operation differ between lamps. If a lamp lasts for many thousands of hours, you may not have to change it for a decade.
  • To really understand the price tag, you need to put all of this together. A lamp that uses minimal energy, emits lots of light, and lasts for a decade is cheaper in the long run than one that uses more energy and blows quickly.

LEDs, or light emitting diodes reportedly have the lowest watts per lumen for any lights available in Australia (see the light globe conversion table at the end of this link). A key reason is that they convert electricity into light, and not heat.

I tested this using a thermal imaging camera to compare an old incandescent with a compact fluorescent and LED lamp. Each had been on for half an hour before I tested their temperature.

The hottest point on the incandescent lamp was 161 degrees Celsius. That’s a lot of electricity being converted into heat, instead of light.

The hottest point on the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) was 134 degrees Celsius. Still pretty hot.

The hottest point on the LED lamp was 65 degrees. Most of the power is going into light, not heat.

LEDs contain less toxins than other lamps, being free of mercury, lead and phosphorous and are also fully recyclable. So there are fewer waste problems with LEDs than with other lamps. CFLs in contrast, contain mercury so it is important to recycle those.

I’m convinced. I had already swapped all of my incandescents for CFLs. Now its time to change over to LEDs. And if the quoted hours are right on these new lamps they might outlive the house.

Hot and Cool with Thermal Pics

Here are some random thermal images with thoughts on what they show. Cats, dogs, chickens, noses, hands, gardens, tents beverages and injuries.

Cats have hot faces and cool bodies.


Dog on a couch

Dogs have hot eyes and cold noses.


Chickens roosting on a cold night.

Chickens have hot faces and feet.

Hot nose, cold nose.

Cool day, warm soil. Cool above the weed mat.

A folk festival in a heatwave. The dark parts of the tent are very much hotter than the light parts.



Our sore bits are hot.

Fun for the whole family with a household waste audit

The waste audit on our path to an zero-emissions home revealed a grand total of 50kg of annual emissions and some ways to reduce it. Here’s how to do a waste audit, and what we found.

Why waste?

The average Australian generates about 1,200 kg of waste each year. The average emissions from municipal (household) waste, is approximately 1.4 times the weight of the waste, meaning that average Australians emit about 1,680 kg of CO2e  each year. Total emissions from Australian solid waste are about 23,000,ooo tonnes per year, or  3.8% of Australia’s total emissions footprint in 2014-5. So emissions from waste are worth worrying about.

Emissions from waste are mainly the result of organic substances, like food scraps and paper, breaking down in landfills. When this happens underground in a landfill, it forms methane, which has about 25 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide.

Most rubbish bins contain lots of organic waste. Organics are about 65% of household waste when councils do not collect garden and park waste, and about 60% when they do.

My council does collect garden and park waste, but I don’t use the service. Instead I give (nearly) all of my food scraps to the chooks and compost (most of) the rest. We make very good use of the council recycling bin, so our landfill waste is significantly less than would be without that service. So I was expecting my waste emissions to be lower than the average. I did a waste audit to check.

Here’s how to do a waste audit, and what we found.

My household waste audit


  • A unit of waste – we used one average week’s waste, collected from all household bins.
  • A tarp, or enclosed area to sort the waste – we used a kids play-pen.
  • A set of scales for weighing the waste.
  • Buckets to hold waste.
  • Tongs, so you don’t have to touch it.
  • Gloves, for the bits you do have to touch.


Decide on your categories.

If you are trying to work out whether the waste is going in the right bins, your categories need to match the bins, eg:

  • landfill waste,
  • recycling,
  • organic.

If you are working on a carbon footprint, then your categories need to match the groups of wastes with different emissions factors, or global warming potentials. This only applies to the organic component and according to the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts Factors (Table 41), includes:

  • food,
  • paper and cardboard,
  • garden and green,
  • wood,
  • textiles,
  • sludge,
  • nappies,
  • rubber and leather, and
  • inert waste.

I was interested both in whether householders were using the right bins, and also in calculating the greenhouse emissions. So I used every relevant organic waste category, plus ‘landfill waste’, which is essentially the waste that should have been in the rubbish bin, because there wasn’t another option. I also added two other categories of interest. They were:

  • paper towels – which I use quite a bit to mop up organic kitchen waste which I don’t want to flush down the sink, as it fills up my septic tank with sludge, and
  • monstrous hybrids – which are an infuriatingly difficult category made up of things that could be recycled, if only they weren’t joined together with things that can’t be.

Sort your waste

Tip the waste into the sorting area, and get to work with the tongs. Put all of the waste into its waste category.

Then, fill a bucket with waste from just one category and weigh it. First you’ll need to zero the scales so that you weight the waste, not the bucket. If you are thinking about bin sizes, you need to estimate the volume, or size of the waste, but for carbon accounting, just the weight will do.

Record the results

Here are the results from my household’s weekly waste audit.

 Category kg
hand towels 0.21
Co-mingled recyclables 0.1
Inert waste 0.58
Monstrous hybrids 0.05
Food 0.19
 Total 1.13

Multiply by 52 to get an annual total.

  Weekly Annually
 Category kg  kg
hand towels 0.21 10.92
Co-mingled recyclables 0.1 5.2
Inert waste 0.58 30.16
Monstrous hybrids 0.05 2.6
Food 0.19 9.88
 Total 1.13 58.76

Calculate the greenhouse gas emissions

To calculate the emissions, you need the emissions factors for each type of waste. These are in table 41 of the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts Factors, which is regularly updated, so get the current version. This gives a multiplier for the weight of each type of waste. To work out emissions, all you have to do is multiply the weight of each organic waste type by the relevant factor, like this.

Weekly Annually Factor Emissions
Category kg kg Multiply by weight kg CO2e
hand towels 0.21 10.9 2.9 31.7
Co-mingled recyclables 0.1 5.2 0 0
Inert waste 0.58 30.2 0 0
Monstrous hybrids 0.05 2.6 0 0
Food 0.19 9.9 1.9 18.78
Total 1.13 58.76   50.44

How did we go?

This gives me a total of just over 50 kg of emissions from waste each year. My household is about 3 people, so that’s only about one per cent of the emissions of an average three-person household (3 x 1680= 5,040).

Frankly, I’m amazed it could be so low, and so I’ll use some other blog posts to look into how I’m keeping it down. Most of it seems to be the chooks, and the aerobic composting, but we’ll see.

Can we improve?

Despite the emissions being so low, there are several things I could do to reduce even further. I could:

  • either stop using hand towel or put it in the council’s green bin. This would take out 31.7kg per year of CO2e emissions.
  • be more rigorous about composting all organic waste or giving it to the chooks. The food waste still in the mix was generally uneaten cat food, or meat bones. These are tough wastes to get rid of, since bones don’t break down, and I don’t like to feed cat food to the chooks, because who knows what’s really in it. However if I could solve this, it would cut out the other 18.8 kg of organic waste. Again, some of it could go in the council green bin.

Why not check your own waste

Inspired? Have a go at doing your own waste audit. Its fun for the whole family. Or perhaps not. As I said in another post, the household 13yo found it totally gross (there were some maggots on the food waste).

Myrle pouring rubbish for waste audit

If you do a waste audit, tell us what you found.

Steps on a carbon-neutral journey

How will I know that my home is carbon neutral? How will others believe me? The first steps are working out what to measure, and how to measure it. This post explains how that’s done.  It’s a little bit dry, so to keep you interested, here’s a snapshot of the next step which was the waste audit, described by the household 13yo as ‘totally gross’.

Myrle pouring rubbish for waste audit

The National Carbon Off-set Standard (NCOS) tells us to do a life cycle analysis (LCA) of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with home. That means working out a ‘cradle to grave’ assessment of all greenhouse gas emissions involved in running a household. The NCOS points us to the International Standard for Environmental Management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and Framework IS014040 identifies four phases for an LCA. Here’s how it looks for my house.

flow diagram for carbon LCA

There are some general standards, and some choices about the scope of a greenhouse gas inventory. These are well established for businesses and products, and they can also be applied to a home. For instance, the Scope 1 emissions from my diagram are really a must. Those are the direct emissions from gas heating and fires, and anything else burned or decomposing at a site. Strangely, human breathing is not included in inventories, even though animal farts may be.

pre-winter solstice bonfire 2015

Emissions from electricity used in a building are also a must in the inventory. But you don’t have to include the full fuel cycle emissions from electricity, like transmission losses from the poles, wires, and the times when high voltage loads are transformed to lower voltages. I’ve chosen to include the full fuel cycle. The interpretation stage gives me a chance to change my mind about this if it’s not working out. Similarly, I’d love to include the emissions associated with the stuff we buy for my home. I would, but the data gathering and calculations are way too complex.

The reason that we can exclude these ‘scope 3’ emissions is that they are all included in the inventories being done by other people or businesses. For instance, I’ll be counting emissions from air travel, even though airlines are required to record and report all of those emissions under Australia’s National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Scheme.

Keep your eye out for the next post, on my home waste audit. That’s when we’ll start to see how my emissions stack up, and what I can do to reduce them.

Towards a carbon neutral home

In Paris, 2015, the Council of Parties reached international agreement that urgent action is needed to prevent climate change. Then February 2016 broke all the records for breaking global warming records. More needs to be done and I can do some of it myself, starting at home.

New Commitment for 2016: Make my home carbon-neutral.

I’ll aim for my home-life to be healthy, comfortable and affordable, but not to contribute to global warming. I’ll also record the details in this blog, and encourage other households to join in.

The plan is to systematically:

  • measure my carbon footprint,
  • look for ways to reduce emissions,
  • off-set whatever remains,
  • continue assessing and reporting so I can continue the journey, and maybe even become carbon negative.

The Australian National Carbon Offset Standard shows these steps together like this.

So what does it mean to be carbon neutral?

We humans are emitting greenhouse gases into the atmosphere faster than they can be absorbed back into the earth. As a result, more heat is trapped within the atmosphere than previously, and global temperatures are rising. This is happening even though some people don’t understand, or disagree with the science.

(If you are one of those climate change denialists, there’s no point me arguing with you, and you won’t be interested in this blog, so kindly head off and put your head in the sand somewhere else).

People who measure and reduce the greenhouse effect have worked out an accounting system to keep track of emissions. The basic idea is to get all of the emissions in the same units. Lots of different gases contribute to global warming. Each gas has a different impact, or global warming potential. A tonne of methane (CH4) for instance, causes about 25 times as much global warming as a tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2). And a tonne of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) has about 23,900 times as great an impact. Because CO2 is both the most common greenhouse gas, and also has the smallest impact per unit, we simplify things, by using CO2 as the reference point. All we have to do is to convert all emissions to their carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), and we can sum the totals together.

Carbon Neutral Standard diagram

Being carbon neutral means minimising your emissions, then balancing any that remain with an equal amount sequestered or off-set. Basically, you absorb as much as you emit.

In the next few blogs, I’m going to measure the emissions my household has from:

  • waste,
  • electricity,
  • other energy sources,
  • transport,
  • other sources.

Wish me luck and come along for the ride.

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